Carpet Portland, Oregon
Portland Flooring & Carpet 3452 NW Yeon Ave Portland, OR 97210 | 503-775-7617
Portland Flooring & Carpet—How Carpet is Made
Knowing how carpet is made can be very advantageous. Knowing the different materials that make up various carpets also helps you understand and evaluate their performance aspects: why certain carpets are easier to install, why some wear better, longer, and why others are easier to care for and clean. It can also make you a smarter shopper.
Step 1: Fiber
Carpet is made in a 3-part process.
begins with weaving the synthetic or staple fiber into a primary backing material
usually made of woven polypropylene
main value is to provide a base cloth to hold the yarn while tufting happens
tufting machine has 800 to 2000 needles like a sewing machine to pull the yarn through the primary backing material
tufting machine is 12 feet wide, its needles penetrate the backing and a small hook (looper) grabs the yarn and holds it in place
Loop pile construction
holds appearance well
no exposed yarn tips
only sides of the yarn are exposed to wear and stress
known to hold up the best
sometimes the looper cuts small loops creating a cut pile
length of these pieces called pile height, or distance between the looper and primary backing
cuts are controlled by a computer, and can be programmed to cut only some of the loops
this cutting is called cut and loop construction and creates pattern on the surface
#2 Application of dye
Two dyeing processes
yarn dyeing/ pre-dyeing -color is applied to the yarn prior to tufting
advantages are good side-by-side color consistency, large lot sizes, uniformity
carpet dying – applying color to the yarn after tufting
benefits -greater color flexibility, lower co
Carpet dyeing methods
#3 Manufacturing the carpet
Terms and construction variables
Pile height, or nap
Oregon City Carpet Glossary and Vocabulary of Oregon City Carpeting Terms
The primary backing material of carpeting is usually made of woven polypropylene and its main value is to provide a base cloth to hold the yarn in place while the tufting happens.
A second dyeing method used in the manufacturing of carpet involves applying color to the yarn after the carpet has been tufted.
A loop style carpet is often referred to as a berber and can be either produced in a level loop or multi-level loop construction. Often times loop carpets are accented with color fleck to provide a contrast from the primary carpet color.
Bulked Continuous Filament
Continuous long strands of synthetic fiber that have been formed into bundles of yarn. Products made from a continuous filament yarn rarely display any shedding or pilling.
A style of carpet constructed of thicker (sometimes a combination of thicker and thinner), yarn characterized by a longer pile height.
Commonly called padding, this is the layer of material that lies between the carpet and floor. Carpet cushion helps provide comfort and support along with excellent noise reduction. Quality cushion is critical to the performance of carpet and is required by manufacturers warranties.
Carpet Dyeing (Continuous Dyeing)
Also called Continuous Dyeing, color is applied directly to the carpet face by spraying or printing. This process is also used to create multicolor or patterned effects in the carpet.
The loops of yarn are cut, creating a more level finish on the face of the carpet. Textures, saxonies and friezes are all considered cut pile carpets.
A measure of how tightly the yarn is stitched into the primary backing. Higher density carpet will typically wear better than lower density carpet.
Is determined by the actual amount of fiber per square yard, and is measured in ounces.
Fiber is the basic material that a carpet is made of. Over ninety percent of all of the carpet made today is made up of synthetic fiber. The rest is natural fiber, most commonly wool.
This is a cut pile style that has a very high twist level, meaning each strand of yarn is twisted so tightly that they actually curl over at the end. This creates a textured surface with a casual appearance, and a carpet of high durability and very good wear-ability.
Created by uncut yarns, loop pile carpet can be level loop or multi level. Loop pile products hold their appearance very well. Since there are no exposed yarn tips, only the sides of the yarn are exposed to wear and stress.
The application of weight (like a high traffic area) on an installed carpet produces the visual effect of carpet “laying down”.
(See Pile Height)
A synthetic fiber. Most quality residential carpets today are made of nylon. Nylon is the leader in: appearance retention, fade and heat resistance, soil and stain resistance, and color and styling.
Cut or uncut loops of yarn that create the surface of carpeting.
Also called the nap, pile height is the length of the tuft measured from the primary backing to the yarn tips.
A common synthetic material well accepted for its bulkiness, color clarity, and good stain and fade resistance. While not as resilient as nylon, Polyester fiber carpet constructed with today’s new technologies can be a good performer.
Another common synthetic material used in carpet manufacturing, sometimes referred to as olefin. Most commonly used in commercial carpeting polypropylene is not as resilient or resistant to abrasion as nylon, it is naturally stain and fade resistant.
Saxony has a smooth, soft, velvet plush look and a luxurious feel with a uniform twist and finish. Be aware that this style will show footprints and vacuum marks.
Another common method of carpet coloring, screen printing is where color is applied through anywhere from one to as many as eight silk-screens.
A change in carpet appearance caused by a combination of wear and carpet tuft distortion. Shading is not an actual change in color, but is a difference in the way the light source refracts off the face of the carpet.
One of the last stages in the manufacturing of carpet, shearing is the process of removing all of the little loose ends and projecting fibers that might have been created during the tufting process. It also helps achieve the yarn’s tip definition of the finished carpet.
Shedding is a natural part of a new carpet. Frequent vacuuming for the first few days should remove any loose fibers from the carpet’s surface.
Refers to small tufts or loops of carpet that become visible after the installation. Use a small pair of scissors to carefully trim the loose fibers flush with the surface of the carpet.
Staple fiber is made up of short strands of fiber (approximately 7 inches long) that are spun together to create strands of yarn. Staple fiber has more of a tendency to “shed” than continuous filament fiber.
The measure of how close the yarns are together. Stitch rate is measured in penetrations, or tufts, in a given length of carpet, usually an inch. The stitch rate is controlled by how fast the carpet is moved through the tufting machine.
Man-made, using chemical compounds versus natural materials. Over ninety percent of all of the carpet is made up of synthetic fiber – usually one of three materials: nylon, polypropylene or polyester. All three are created by similar chemical processes using oil and natural gas.
A very popular cut pile carpet that has alternating twists of yarn creating a tonal appearance. This carpet creates a more casual atmosphere in the room and is available in a broad range of colors and densities.
When two different flooring products meet – say, carpeting and a hardwood floor – it’s called a transition. Professional installers try to match the surface heights of various flooring products to minimize transitions.
The first step in the manufacturing of carpet. Tufting begins with the process of weaving the synthetic or staple fiber into a primary backing material.
Carpet yarns are twisted around each other to produce both textural and performance characteristics. Typically the higher the twist the better the performance.
Yarn dyeing, also called pre-dyeing, is where the color is applied to the yarn prior to tufting. The advantages of all yarn dyeing methods include good side-by-side color consistency, large lot sizes, and uniformity.
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